The Updated Ultimate Guide to Booking Award Tickets Using American Miles

Booking American AAdvantage Awards: Your ability to book an award, and how much it costs, is a function of:

  • Whether (and what kind of) award seats are open on the flights you want (availability)
  • The mileage program’s award chart (miles pricing)
  • Whether they impose fuel surcharges or other fees (cash pricing)
  • If the mileage program lets you combine those flights into a single award or makes you redeem multiple awards (routing rules)

I really like American AAdvantage’s award chart for premium cabin redemptions. The mileage price for most destinations, in business and especially first class, is quite good.

They also only add significant fuel surcharges onto British Airways awards (and modest fuel surcharges onto Iberia awards). This makes the cost of transatlantic awards expensive in cash, since BA is their largest partner across the Atlantic. In contrast, Delta adds fuel surcharges onto awards that originate in Europe or that are on certain partners (like China Southern and China Eastern) and United does not add fuel surcharges onto award tickets at all.

What I don’t like is that American has the most complex routing rules of any frequent flyer program and they do not publish those rules publicly at all so members are often left scratching their heads as to why an award costs a certain price.

I’ve written guides on this in the past, but since those rules have recently had some minor tweaks (and there have been a handful of such tweaks since the last time I updated the guide) it makes sense to walk through them again.

As I said, American doesn’t publish this information anyway. So what I know about these awards comes from hundreds of award bookings I’ve made, discussions with others, and of course checking against the knowledge that’s been published by a definitive source online in the form of unpublished rules shared over at

This will show you the rules, tips, and tricks to make the most of your American miles for international award tickets on American’s own flights and on their airline partners.

How to Book American AAdvantage Awards: One-Way Partner Awards

Here’s American’s partner award chart.

It used to look like this:

Booking American AAdvantage Awards

But they now have a separate chart for each region of the world. It looks like this:

Booking American AAdvantage Awards

This is the chart for flights starting from North America (the prices are the same if you are going to North America). For other regions of the world, say you’re originating in Europe and want an award to the Middle East or India, you select Europe as the region whose chart you want to look at.

And here are the rules.

Stopovers: Stopovers are not permitted. Anything over 4 hours on a purely domestic award, and (what’s relevant for this purpose) anything 24 hours or longer on an international award would constitute a stopover and require a separate award. When you’re putting together an international award, the 24 hour rule applies even to your domestic connecting segments.

You can transit a city for 23 hours and 59 minutes and that’s just a connection (go explore a city for no extra miles) but once you hit 24 hours that would be a stopover and an extra award.

This restriction means no more ‘free one-way awards’ using American miles.

Routing rules:

Published routing: You have to fly a ‘published routing’ in order to book an award. Specifically, the primary overwater carrier has to publish a routing between your starting and ending cities in order to fly between those two cities on a single award. And you have to follow their routing rules for any connections.

So if Etihad has no fare between Richmond and the Maldives, then you’re going to be looking at two award tickets — say, Richmond to Abu Dhabi and Abu Dhabi to the Maldives, costing an extra 25,000 miles for one-way business class from Abu Dhabi to the Maldives or 25,000 miles for first class Richmond to your US departure gateway.

This is a rule that’s little understood by agents, they often won’t know why an award will price higher than the award chart suggests for travel between two regions.

Another ‘trick’ or area of confusion is that “IATA YY fares” don’t count for this purpose (there are fares published which any participating airline can use, even though they aren’t their own fares — those don’t count for the purposes of having a published fare between two cities in order to book it as a single award). Similarly, “constructed fares” often do not count either, although I’ve also had them accepted. An airline may show a fare from a city in Mexico to San Francisco and separately from San Francisco to Bali, adding them together. That’s not the same thing as the airline having its own fare between the city in Mexico and Bali.

Because this rule is little understood, I’ve actually had some (very occasional) success in skirting it. When an award hasn’t priced the way I want it to, and it gets escalated, the person reviewing it may not understand why it didn’t price and may push it through manually. This is rare, and not something I push the envelope on in my award booking service but still worth noting that it’s happened.

Maximum permitted mileage: Many airlines say you can only fly the ‘published maximum permitted mileage’ between two cities, or the published amount plus some percentage. And the number of miles flown is the primary constraint on how you can route an award.

American on the other hand doesn’t really use the maximum permitted mileage concept. They make you fly on a published routing. However, some fares don’t have published routings and instead themselves rely on maximum permitted mileage. In that case, American will allow you to fly the maximum permitted mileage plus 25%. That sounds super generous, and it is, but the situation doesn’t apply often enough to be really controlling.

Most direct routing: This is a catch all and is a rule that applies, though not always automatically. It’s a reason you can be denied an award that otherwise appears to follow American’s rules. You have to fly the most direct routing, though of course the most direct routing between many cities is a non-stop flight and yet you’re allowed to connect most of the time. So it isn’t really consistently enforced, but is something in the airline’s back pocket which says that any time they find you to be doing something unreasonable they can deny it.

What this means in practice, I find, is that I can fly Hong Kong – Los Angeles (stopover) – New York JFK.

But — while I have even been allowed to do this — I cannot bank on being permitted to fly Hong Kong – New York JFK – Los Angeles. I’ve literally done that specific award, but it’s certainly not the most direct routing between Hong Kong and Los Angeles and shouldn’t be counted on being approved, that it’s within the “maximum permitted mileage plus 25%” notwithstanding.

You cannot connect in a third region. Award travel between two regions cannot touch a third region, unless a specific exception is in place. You cannot fly from the US to Europe to Asia, you have to fly direct from the US to Asia. Again, unless there’s an exception — no American partner flies non-stop from the US to Africa, and it’s possible to use American miles to fly to Africa, because they do make an exception that will allow you to connect in the third region of Europe.

Known Exceptions:

  1. Travel between North/Central/South America and the Indian Sub Continent/Middle East can connect in Europe

  2. Travel between North/Central/South America and Africa can connect in Europe

  3. Travel between North American or South America Zone 2 and Africa can connect in Middle East/Indian Subcontinent if the flight arriving in and departing from that third region is on Qatar Airways.

  4. Travel between North/Central/South America and Asia 2 can connect in:Asia 1

  5. Travel between the Indian Sub Continent/Middle East and Asia 1 or South Pacific can connect in:Asia 2

  6. Travel between Africa and Asia 1 can connect in Asia 2 or in Middle East/Indian Subcontinent provided that connection arrives and departs on Qatar Airways.

  7. Travel between Africa and Asia 2 can connect in Middle East/Indian Subcontinent provided that connection arrives and departs on Qatar Airways.

  8. Travel between Asia 1 and Europe or South Pacific can connect in:Asia 2

  9. Travel between Europe and Asia 1 can connect in Middle East/Indian Subcontinent provided that connection arrives and departs on Qatar Airways.

  10. Travel between Europe and Asia 2 can connect in Middle East/Indian Subcontinent provided that connection arrives and departs on Qatar Airways.

  11. Travel between Europe and South Pacific can connect in Middle East/Indian Subcontinent provided that connection arrives and departs on Qatar Airways or now arrives and departs on Qantas.

  12. Travel between North America and Indian Subcontinent/Middle East can connect in Europe & Afghanistan /Bangladesh /Bhutan /British Indian Ocean Territory India /Nepal /Pakistan /Maldives /Sri Lanka

  13. Travel between Central/South America Zone 1 and Indian Subcontinent/Middle East can connect in Europe & Afghanistan /Bangladesh /Bhutan /British Indian Ocean Territory India /Nepal /Pakistan /Maldives /Sri Lanka

  14. Travel between South America Zone 2 and Indian Subcontinent/Middle East can connect in Europe & Afghanistan /Bangladesh /Bhutan /British Indian Ocean Territory India /Nepal /Pakistan /Maldives /Sri Lanka

  15. Travel between North America and Indian Subcontinent may be via the Pacific if your transpacific flight is on American Airlines or Cathay Pacific and onward travel is on Cathay Pacific, SriLankan, or Jet Airways.

So you can fly from the US to Africa via London or from the US to Africa via Doha on Qatar Airways but you cannot fly from the US to Africa via Abu Dhabi on American’s partner Etihad as there’s no exception allowing transit in the Middle East region unless that transit is on Qatar Airways which would mean connecting in Doha.

And you can fly from the US to Hong Kong via Tokyo but you cannot fly from the US to Tokyo via Hong Kong as there’s no exception allowing transit in Asia 2 on a ticket from the US to Asia 1.

Relatedly there are specific rules that you can only fly from North America to Europe, Africa and the Indian Sub-Continent/Middle East via the Atlantic. It can make total sense to fly San Francisco to India via Asia instead of Europe, but this is not allowed.

Additionally, you can only fly to Asia via the Pacific, and though Australia and Tahiti and Fiji are in the same region, you cannot fly to Fiji via Australia (“the long way”).

This of course requires you to know American’s definition of regions.

For instance, South America 1 is Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela. The rest of South America is ‘South America 2’.

And ‘Asia 1’ is Japan, Korea, and Mongolia. The bulk of Southeast Asia will be ‘Asia 2’. American groups places like India, Pakistan, and the Maldives in the same region as the Middle East (Israel and Tajikistan!) calling it ‘Middle East / Indian Subcontinent’.

By knowing where your destination is located you can find where on the chart you’re flying between and thus how much your award should cost.

There are both extreme values in this approach, and odd costs. For instance you can fly first class between the US and Asia 2 for 67,500 miles one way. A first class award from the US to Sri Lanka (which is in Asia 2) is thus 67,500 miles as long as you follow an allowable routing for North America-Asia 2 meaning US – Hong Kong – Colombo works, and flying via Tokyo (Asia 1) is allowed, but flying via the Middle East is not.

Meanwhile a first class award to Male (the capital of the Maldives), which is 483 miles away from Colombo, is 90,000 miles one-way. You can route via the Middle East but you cannot route via Hong Kong on one award.

Correct pricing: American’s system automatically prices award tickets. It’s usually correct based on the rules above, but is not always correct. In that case, it helps to know the correct price and to get the agent to appeal for help because the pricing can be manually stored, overriding the computer. I’ve had this done while I’ve waited on hold, and I’ve also had to have them ‘look into it’ and get back to me. But it’s worth being aware of.

Booking and change fees:

  • Telephone booking fee. American charges $30 for domestic awards booked by phone and $40 for international awards. They do not charge this fee for Executive Platinum members and they do not charge this fee for awards you can’t book on the website.
  • Close-in booking fee. Awards for travel less than 21 days out costs $75, though this fee is waived for awards issued out of an AAdvantage elite member’s account. You used to be able to book travel more than 21 days out, avoid the fee, and then make a free date change to be within 21 days. That trick is something American has since cracked down on.
  • Date changes are free. There’s no charge to change just the date or time of a flight, or to change the class of service of an individual segment if that segment was booked in a lower class than the award you paid for (one flight was available only in coach on a business class award, and then business opens up later).
  • Changing your origin or destination costs $150. If there’s more than one passenger on a reservation, then the $150 applies to the first passenger plus only $25 for each additional passenger. This fee is waived for Executive Platinums.
  • Changing an award type requires cancellation and redeposit. If you’re flying an American-only award and want to change to a partner award, you can’t just make the change and pay a fee, the award gets cancelled and you start over.
  • Cancellation and redeposit is $150 for the first passenger and $25 each additional passenger, waived for Executive Platinums. It’s nice that American doesn’t have the $200 rule that United charges (though they also don’t have United’s sliding scale of different fees for different level elites) or Delta’s rule about changes within 72 hours of travel.

How to find availability:

For award travel that includes most American AAdvantage partner airlines, you are going to have to call to book the award.

The American website only displays availability for airberlin, Alaska, British Airways, Finnair, Hawaiian, Qantas, Royal Jordanian, and US Airways (and those airlines’ eligible affiliates).

The American website is often the best tool for searching those because they have a fairly good award calendar. But the AA website isn’t nearly as extensive in terms of searching for partners as the Qantas and British Airways websites. As a result you probably need to sign up for frequent flyer accounts with both of those airlines as well and use those sites to search for award space.

The Qantas site adds access to Iberia, Cathay Pacific, Qatar, S7 Airlines, LAN, TAM, and Sri Lankan which doesn’t support.

The British Airways site adds access to Iberia, S7 Airlines, Cathay Pacific, Japan Airlines, Malaysia AIrlines, Qatar Airways, LAN, TAM, and Sri Lankan which doesn’t support.

The BA site, therefore, has the most additional partners and also partners not found on the Qantas site. However I personally find the Qantas site easier and faster to navigate. Thus I tend to use it for quick searching, and the BA site for JAL and Malaysia.

These sites are not perfect, and they do occasionally show ‘false positives’ (seats that aren’t really there and will error out when you try to book) or seats that American agents can’t see when you call (usually that just means you have to hang up, call back, or the American computer isn’t showing space when searching a connecting itinerary and they need to search just the segment you’re looking for, or even occasionally vice versa). Sometimes there are just data/connection or syncing issues.

Got questions?

About Gary Leff

Gary Leff is one of the foremost experts in the field of miles, points, and frequent business travel - a topic he has covered since 2002. Co-founder of frequent flyer community, emcee of the Freddie Awards, and named one of the "World's Top Travel Experts" by Conde' Nast Traveler (2010-Present) Gary has been a guest on most major news media, profiled in several top print publications, and published broadly on the topic of consumer loyalty. More About Gary »

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  1. I will be asking AA for a receipt. But, within the last month I booked a one-way JAL award ORD-NRT that had $5.60 in Taxes/Fees. Then just yesterday I booked a roundtrip ORD-SIN with JAL out and CX First back with Taxes/Fees of $107. Both are in the same class of service.

    I can’t pinpoint the reason for the discrepancy. I assume that transiting via HKG or having SIN as the destination would be the reason. I am guessing that including discussion of fees on various AAdvantage award tickets would be a bit too much like nailing Jell-O to a wall?

  2. Currently have a award booked for 2 pax to Europe using USDM, if one changes departure point is it now under AA rules?.

  3. Outside of the US, airport fees are paid by travellers.

    Those are normal taxes for transiting Japan, Hong Kong and departing Singapore.

    Fuel surcharges for the programs that charge it would be around 200 to 400 on top

  4. Hi, I tried to book an award ticket round trip JFK-CTU. The website said:”There are currently no awards available on for your requested Origin and Destination”.

    What should I do? Call the customer service agent? Thanks.

  5. Very thorough. Thanks. You mention that date changes are free, but you forgot to mention that re-routing is also free as long as the origination and destination don’t change. So if you’re booked LAX-DFW-LHR and you change it to LAX-JFK-LHR, that change is free. But if you change the destination then your cancellation and redeposit clause kicks in.

  6. @Johnny – American’s website only shows flights on a handful of airlines, but they have many partners. Airlines like Cathay Pacific (and Dragonair) don’t show up at You’ll have to call to book that.

  7. Now that they have merged, is US Airways also considered an American-only award and vice versa? (if I changed from all AA metal to all US metal with same origin/destination, would this require a cancel/redeposit?) For reservations made far in advance, does the 21-day close-in booking fee kick in if I make routing or class-of-service changes (business award to a first-class award) in the final 3-weeks?

  8. A very useful & helpful post from Gary!

    BTW, if you do a date change without fee, don’t you still have to fly within ONE YEAR from the first booking date?

  9. Hi Gary…Trying to book business/first SIN to the US on either CX or JAL using AA miles. Obviously they connect me through either HKG or TYO. Collectively, there is no availability on one itinerary all the way through to the US but if I break them up, the British Air website shows some availability on random flights to HKG/TYO and then also on US bound flights. Can I call AA and have them manually book those flights onto one award ticket? If ANY individual flights show as available and the international connection is less than 24 hours, can AA book as one itinerary even if flights collectively on one itinerary show no award availability? Thanks for the help!

  10. A great post Gary! Very helpful for those of us who have been merged ito the AA system.

  11. Hi Gary,

    Can I travel from LAX to SYD via HKG by FC CX with 72500 miles. I think someone told me that was eligible. but I am not sure. Thanks

  12. Gary, I recently used 75k AA miles for an EY business class redemption from Perth to Zurich thru Abi Dhabi, despite the chart suggesting 60k requirement. Could you or any of your readers explain why the extra 15k miles, given that Etihad does publish fares from PER-AUH-ZRH?

    Thanks in advance, love the site!

  13. Thanks Gary. This was a great update and review. I have one question for you. Over the years, like your review says, I’ve been able to change routing, connecting airports, etc.. on award tickets with no change fees. However, i have not been able to change the destination airport, MIA vs FLL, even though they are co-terminal airports. Multiple agents said that co-terminals only apply for same day standby without a change fee and if I wanted to change MIA to FLL on an award ticket ahead of time, I would have to pay the change fee. Is this true?

  14. @Elizabeth You will be charged for $75 when making changes within 21 days. US Air used to charge $150 for any kind of change but now the fee is waived if you are just changing the date(s).

    @jim I am pretty sure your guess is correct.

    I cannot say this will always happen but AA has not been charging me the call service fee when I couldn’t book online myself. Also, I was once told that if you can just pay extra miles needed for upgrade (without changing origination nor destination) instead of canceling and rebook.

  15. The only route from SFO to PUS (Busan, South Korea) is from SFO-HKG-PUS on Cathay (SFO-Asia 2 – Asia 1). Will I be able to book this with my aadvantage points (if I can ever find a seat)? And if so, how many points on economy? Thank you!

  16. Hi Gary,
    Thanks for the informative guide. A quick question regarding change of destination:
    Say I booked SYD-AUH-BOM in EY F, but later would like to change the destination to DEL. While AUH-DEL still has F availability, SYD-AUH no longer does. Would I still be able to change the ticket this way? In other words, would I be able to hold onto my already confirmed SYD-AUH space?

  17. @JW, just to be clear, if I book an award LAX-NRT-HKG four months out, and then change it to the LAX-HKG nonstop when availability opens up a week before departure, I will be charged $75 pp even though it’s a change that wouldn’t ordinarily incur a fee?


  18. I too would be curious about domestic overnight LIFO (comment from Mike, 6:32 PM yesterday). I know that in the past there’s anecdotally been some things to be had with that according to some people, but it has always seemed highly YMMV at best.

  19. @Leo you are running into the third region rule. There’s a new exception that allows South Pacific to Europe via Middle East but only on Qatar.

  20. @Jamie – yes, provided the flights fit into American’s routing rules described above you can call and have them piece together the segments.

  21. Hi @Gary! Thanks for the response. That routing is SFO – NRT – HND – PUS. Would that be a problem with the rules?

  22. How do you deal with the phantom EY award space on the AA website? I want to avoid the YQ on BA for a return from the EU to the US in January and keep running into EY flights I can’t book. Is this a call the agent thing and they can book or am I just doomed to keep searching for 3 seats @ 20K?

  23. @john I am confused – EY (Etihad) space does not appear on the American website. And Etihad doesn’t fly between the US and Europe in any case.

  24. @gary it should have been phantom AY (Finnair) space. My thumbs moved faster than my brain….

  25. Can I go to Maldives (Middle East/Indian Subcontinent region) via Pacific Ocean using Cathay Pacific from North America? SFO-HKG-MLE is shorter than going through Atlantic Ocean, I guess.

  26. @ Jon – Gary answered your question in his post:

    “Meanwhile a first class award to Male (the capital of the Maldives), which is 483 miles away from Colombo, is 90,000 miles one-way. You can route via the Middle East but you cannot route via Hong Kong on one award.”

  27. Thank you for writing this guide! My wife and I are adopting from China and I would like to find award travel to fly First Class to Beijing. The most challenging part is we will receive our travel notice as little as 8 to 3 weeks ahead of when we travel. Do you think it is even possible to find availability on such short notice? Would you focus on Cathay Pacific? Thank you for any insight!

  28. 1. You wrote: “They also only add significant fuel surcharges onto British Airways awards (and modest fuel surcharges onto Iberia awards). This makes the cost of transatlantic awards expensive in cash, ” Actually, AA charges the same ripoff surcharges for AAwards as if you fly on BA when you fly on AA aircraft to or via LHR. 2. Just try to go to Europe with an AAward on AA, IB, AB, Finnair flights. AA will only let you go on BA via LHR with the surcharges.
    3. You might consider adding in the upcoming AAward chart. There are some some reduced mileage flights in USA.

  29. @Jerry Mandel – American adds the UK departure taxes to anything leaving the UK. They only add substantial fuel surcharges to British Airways flights (and very modest fuel surcharges to Iberia). The fees you’re seeing on American aircraft are government taxes for originating a departure in the UK.

  30. My comment did not address UK departure Air Duties, only the fuel surcharges. Again, try to book an AAward flight to Europe. Any flight to or via LHR, even if on an AA aircraft, will incur the fuel surcharge.

  31. Here is an Economy flight to LHR. You can see that AA does indeed charge the fuel surcharge. ($229.00 USD) They sneakley call it by another name. [This takes up a lot of room and you can delete it.]

    Your Trip Price:
    $1,345.80 USD

    Baggage and Optional Charges Link opens in a new window
    Flight Information
    Flight Depart Arrive
    American Airlines

    AA 50

    Dallas/ Fort Worth (DFW)
    May 15, 2016 03:45 PM

    Travel Time : 9 h 10 m
    Cabin Class : Economy
    Seat : unassigned

    London (LHR)
    May 16, 2016 06:55 AM

    Booking Code : H
    Plane Type : 77W
    Fare Amount
    1 × $1,089.00 USD

    $1,089.00 USD
    Taxes & Carrier-Imposed Fees
    $27.80 USD

    Carrier-Imposed Fees
    $229.00 USD

    Price and Tax Information Link opens in a new window
    Flight Subtotal
    $1,345.80 USD

    View Fare Rules Link opens in a new window

    Flight Information Questions? Link opens in a new window
    Your Trip Price:
    $1,345.80 USD

    Baggage and Optional Charges Link opens in a new window
    Hide Trip Details

  32. I’m glad you clarified that, now. will not let you fly with an AAward ticket to or via LHR on AA flights. Only on BA with the surcharges and only to/via LHR. In fact, not on AA, AB, IB, Finnair to Rome….where I want to go. Does AA get a kickback on part of BA’s surcharges?
    Mighty “convenient” that BA will always have availability and AA never will. Mmmmmm.

  33. Hi Gary – just realized I can’t book LAX-HKG-MAA on Cathay as a single award. Do you know how much it would price as 2 awards? I can see LAX-HKG is 67.5k miles in first, but for the life of me I can’t figure out HKG-MAA (Asia2-ME/India). Thanks!

Comments are closed.